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4.55), Epsilon Canis Minoris (mag. The existence of Procyon B was first inferred in the 19th century. 5.13), Eta Canis Minoris A (mag. 5.25), and 11 Canis Minoris (mag. Procyon A has a mass of 1.499 solar masses and a radius twice that of the Sun. These cookies do not store any personal information. From mid-northern latitudes, Procyon appears just to the left of Orion’s hourglass asterism, above Sirius. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Constellation. The plague only ceased after Athenians introduced rites to honour Icarius and Erigone. Procyon has been known by many names throughout history. It will end its life as a white dwarf, one not unlike Procyon B. Procyon B is much smaller than the primary star, with only 0.6 solar masses – unusually low for this type of star – and a size of only 0.012 solar radii. GJ 280, SAO 115756, GCRV 5099, HIP 37279, PPM 153068, BD+05°1739, LHS 233, IRAS 07366+0520, TYC 187-2184-1, Procyon A, Alpha Canis Minoris A, CCDM J07393+0514A, Procyon B, Alpha Canis Minoris B, CCDM J07393+0514B, GJ 280 B. The Inuit knew the star as Sikuliarsiujuittuq, which means “the one who never goes onto the newly formed sea-ice.” The name refers to a man who was too obese to go on ice to hunt and instead stole food from other hunters in his village. The 10 brightest stars in Canis Minor are Procyon (Alpha CMi, mag. This made Dionysus so angry that he unleashed a plague on Athens and inflicted insanity on all unmarried women in the city, who all hanged themselves, just like Erigone. At the time, telescopes powerful enough to observe the companion stars did not exist. They include many of Procyon’s bright neighbours: Sirius, Adhara, Betelgeuse, Rigel, Bellatrix, Alnilam, and Pollux. The best known uses of the star include M. A. R. Barker’s Tékumel (1940-) novels and games, L. Sprague de Camp’s Viagens Interplanetarias (1949–1958; 1977–1992) novels and short stories, Brian Aldiss’ novel Non-Stop (1958), Edmund Cooper’s Seed of Light (1959), Larry Niven’s A Gift from Earth (1968), and Stanislaw Lem’s His Master’s Voice (1968). Procyon is the brightest star in Canis Minor and the 8th brightest star in the sky. The Winter Triangle is prominent in the night sky in the northern hemisphere during the winter months, from … [Read more…], The Cone Nebula is a famous H II region located in the constellation Monoceros, the Unicorn. The Procyon system is composed of Procyon A, a white hydrogen-fusing dwarf of the spectral type F5 IV-V, and Procyon B, a much fainter white dwarf companion with the stellar classification DQZ. 4.39), 6 Canis Minoris (mag. The star will continue to expand until it is 80 to 150 times its current size and turn orange or red at some point in the next 10 to 100 million years. When Icarius gave wine to some shepherds, they became intoxicated and, thinking they had been poisoned, they killed Icarius. Halley compared his astrometric measurements to those given in Ptolemy’s Almagest (2nd century CE) and found that the “fixed” stars were not in fact fixed. Acamar Achernar Acrux Adhara Albireo Alcor Alcyone Aldebaran Alderamin Algenib Algol Alhena Alioth Alkaid Almach Alnair Alnilam Alnitak Alpha Centauri Alphard Alphecca Alpheratz Altair Aludra Ankaa Anser Antares Arcturus Ascella Asterope Atlas Atria Avior Baten Kaitos Bellatrix Betelgeuse Bharani Canopus Capella Caph Castor Celaeno Deneb Denebola Diphda Dubhe Electra Elnath Eltanin Enif Fomalhaut Gacrux Gamma Cassiopeiae Ginan Hadar Hamal Imai Izar Kaus Australis Kaus Borealis Kaus Media Maia Marfik Markab Megrez Meissa Menkalinan Menkar Menkent Merak Merope Mesarthim Miaplacidus Mimosa Mintaka Mira Mirach Mirfak Mirzam Mizar Mu Cephei Naos Nunki Peacock Phecda Pleione Polaris Pollux Procyon Proxima Centauri Rasalhague Regulus Rho Ophiuchi Rigel Rigil Kentaurus Ruchbah Sabik Sadr Saiph Sargas Scheat Schedar Segin Seginus Shaula Sheratan Sirius Spica Stephenson 2-18 Suhail Taygeta Thuban Toliman Unukalhai UY Scuti Vega VV Cephei VX Sagittarii Wezen WOH G64 Zeta Reticuli Zubenelgenubi Zubeneschamali, 11.46 ± 0.05 light years (3.51 ± 0.02 parsecs), Procyon, Alpha Canis Minoris, α CMi, 10 Canis Minoris, HD 61421, HR 2943, GC 10277. 5.25), Delta1 Canis Minoris (mag. It takes the two stars within 8.9 astronomical units of each other and as far apart as 21 astronomical units. Erigone was so overwhelmed with grief that she hanged herself, while Maera jumped off a cliff. Today, it is the star Beta Canis Minoris that is known as Gomeisa. Procyon reaches the highest point in the sky in late winter. Procyon appears red during Arctic winter and the red colour symbolized the man’s bloody end. The only stars in the northern celestial hemisphere brighter than Capella are Arcturus in Boötes constellation and Vega in Lyra. Procyon is located in the northern constellation Canis Minor, the Smaller Dog. Dionysus placed the father, the daughter and the dog in the sky as the constellations Boötes (Icarius), Virgo (Erigone) and the star Procyon (Maera). Representing the smaller dog following Orion, the Hunter, Canis Minor is one of the smaller constellations, only the 71st in size. 5.25). We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. The estimated mass of the progenitor star was about 2.59 solar masses. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. The best time of year to see it is March, when Canis Minor is high above the horizon in the evening. These are Rigel in Orion, Aldebaran in Taurus, Capella in Auriga, Castor and Pollux in Gemini, Procyon in Canis Minor, and Sirius in Canis Major constellation. Like many other bright and nearby stars, Procyon is often used in works of fiction (literature, films, television and video games). Icarius’ body was found by his daughter and her dog. It is a supergiant star, distinctly red in colour, located at an approximate distance of 643 light years from Earth. To Babylonians, Procyon represented Nangar, an aspect of the god Marduk known as the Carpenter, who rebuilt the heavens and organised the sky, constructing stations for the gods, fixing their celestial likeness as constellations and defining the days of the year. Canopus is fainter only than Sirius. In Hawaii, Procyon was known as Puana, meaning “blossom.” It was part of an asterism called Ke ka o Makali’I, or “the canoe bailer of Makali’I,” which it formed with Sirius, Capella, Castor and Pollux. Procyon is one of the 27 stars featured on the flag of Brazil. The history of the star: Procyon. Procyon, Alpha Canis Minoris (α CMi), is a binary star system with an apparent magnitude of 0.34, located at a distance of only 11.46 light years from Earth in the constellation Canis Minor. Even though it formally applies only to the primary component, it is also commonly used for the entire system and for its fainter component (Procyon B). The two stars have an orbital period of 40.82 years and an elliptical orbit with an eccentricity of 0.407. The stars Castor and Pollux in Gemini represented the Duck’s hands. Procyon is very easy to find because it is a first magnitude star and because of its proximity to Orion, one of the most recognizable constellations, as well as to Sirius, the brightest star in the sky. The … [Read more…], Canopus, Alpha Carinae, is the brightest star in Carina constellation and the second brightest star in the night sky. 0.34), Gomeisa (Beta CMi, mag. Its estimated age is 1.87 billion years. The only other star visible from northern latitudes that is brighter … [Read more…], Betelgeuse, Alpha Orionis, is the second brightest star in Orion constellation and the ninth brightest star in the sky. The nebula is part of the larger star forming region around the Christmas Tree Cluster. [A scanned copy can be viewed on this webpage] Alpha (α Canis Minor), Procyon, is a binary, 0.4, and 13, yellowish white and yellow star on the body of the Lesser Dog.. Its titles Procyon and Antecanis meant "Rising before Sirius", "The Dog in Front", "The Preceding Dog". The Winter Hexagon, also known as the Winter Circle, is a prominent winter asterism formed by seven stars prominent in the winter sky. It is best known for its brightest stars – Procyon and Gomeisa – as well as for Luyten’s Star, one of the nearest stars to Earth, a red dwarf located only 1.2 light years from Procyon and 12.36 light years from the Sun. Canis Minor constellation, image: Roberto Mura. In 1862, German astronomer Arthur Auwers calculated the orbit of Procyon B from its effects on the primary star. The Chinese know Procyon as the Third Star of South River (南河三). It has an apparent magnitude of only 10.7. The Greeks associated Procyon with Maera, a hound that belonged to Erigone, the daughter of Icarius of Athens in Greek mythology. Procyon A has the stellar classification F5 IV-V, indicating an evolved star still on the main sequence, appearing white in colour. Procyon B has the stellar classification DQZ, indicating a white dwarf star (D) with an atmosphere rich in carbon (Q) and heavy elements (Z). Procyon B is also fainter and significantly less massive than Sirius B, even though it has a larger estimated radius (8,600 km) than its neighbour (5,800 km). The name Procyon (pronunciation: /ˈproʊsiɒn/, with stress on the first syllable) is derived from the Greek Προκύων (Prokyon), which means “before the dog.” The name is a reference to Procyon rising before Sirius, the Dog Star, when seen from most locations north of the equator. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. These include Antecanis (“before the dog”), the Latin translation of the name, and the Arabic names Al Shira, from aš-ši‘ra aš-šamiyah, meaning “the Syrian sign,” and Elgomaisa, from al-ghumaisa’, meaning “the bleary-eyed (woman).” In an older Arabic tradition, Procyon was associated with the “bleary-eyed woman” and Sirius with “the teary-eyed woman.” Variants of Elgomaisa (Algomeiza, Algomeyza) were used on medieval astrolabes in Europe. The star’s brightness, which is high for its class, indicates that the star has almost run out of hydrogen in its core and begun to expand as it continues to evolve into a subgiant.